08-17-2012, 09:28 PM
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Join Date: Dec 2008
| | Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology
Meta-Analysis of Free-Response Studies, 1992–2008:
Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology http://www.psy.unipd.it/~tressold/cm...reeResp010.pdf
We report the results of meta-analyses on 3 types of free-response study: (a) ganzfeld (a technique that enhances a communication anomaly referred to as “psi”); (b) nonganzfeld noise reduction using alleged psi-enhancing techniques such as dream psi, meditation, relaxation, or hypnosis; and (c) standard free response (nonganzfeld, no noise reduction). For the period 1997–2008, a homogeneous data set of 29 ganzfeld studies yielded a mean effect size of 0.142 (Stouffer Z 5.48, p 2.13 108). A homogeneous nonganzfeld noise reduction data set of 16 studies yielded a mean effect size of 0.110 (Stouffer Z 3.35, p 2.08 104), and a homogeneous data set of 14 standard free-response studies produced a weak negative mean effect size of 0.029 (Stouffer Z2.29, p .989). The mean effect size value of the ganzfeld database were significantly higher than the mean effect size of the nonganzfeld noise reduction and the standard free-response databases. We also found that selected participants (believers in the paranormal, meditators, etc.) had a performance advantage over unselected participants, but only if they were in the ganzfeld condition.